Caldwell Parish was established on March 6, 1838. It was at one time a part of Catahoula Parish. Settlements had been made in the district early in the 19th century, soon after the Louisiana Purchase.
The parish seat of Caldwell is Columbia. With an area totally 529.5 square miles, Caldwell Parish has 6, 1 airport and 1 rail line.
Agriculture: Cotton, soybeans, timber and beef cattle. Industry: Forestry.